This post, I am going to show you how to do troubleshooting the USB device drivers between Linux box and Quectel IoT Modules.
There are some common problems when USB interface of Quectel IoT Modules pluged into the Linux box:
- There is no
/dev/ttyUSB3, so I can't create PPP connection
- There is no
/dev/cdc-wdm0, so I can't create qmi wan connection
- How can I know Linux box problem or Quectel IoT modules problems ?
Below is the hardware configuration where Linux box could be the router (MIPS) running OpenWrt, Rasberry Pi (ARM or ARM64) running Raspbian, ...
Below are all supported drivers of Quectel modules:
|Module Series||Modules||Supported Driver|
|LTE Standard||EC25/EC21/EC20/EG91/EG95||USB Serial /GobiNet/QMI|
|LTE-A||EG06/EP06/EM06/EG12/EP12/ EM12/EG16/EG18||USB Serial/GobiNet/QMI|
Check if Linux OS can recognize Quectel Modules
From the physical level without any Linux driver, Linux box should recognize USB Device included Vendor ID (VID), Product ID (PID). EC25 has VID = 0x2c7c and PID = 0x0125. Other completed VID, PID list with supported USB driver can be found from Product Overview.
|Product||Vendor ID||Product ID||Remarks|
|Ex06||0x2c7c||0x0306||EG06, EP06, EM06|
|Ex12||0x2c7c||0x0512||EG12, EP12, EM12|
The first step is to check the usb devices from kernel debug
cat /sys/kernel/debug/usb/deviceswith root permission, if you see the correct vendor ID and product ID, then USB connection is OK. Otherwise, you must check USB hardware connection between Linux box and Quectel IoT Module.
Below is the oputput from the Linux system which can recognize EC25 with correct driver
USB Serial Option and
QMI WWAN, which has VID, PID information:
P: Vendor=2c7c ProdID=0125 Rev= 3.18.
Alternative tool is
lsusb - list all USB devices, I can see EC25-E VID, PID
Bus 001 Device 011: ID 2c7c:0125. For Ubuntu users, pls install with
sudo apt-get install usbutils.
USB Serial Option driver
USB Serial Option driver is a common interface which is supported by all Quectel driver which has USB interface included WCDMA(UC15, UC20), LTE(EC20, EC21, EC25, ... ). When there is only one LTE Module is in your system, below is the common USB Serial interface:
- /dev/ttyUSB0 - DM
- /dev/ttyUSB1 - For GPS NMEA message output
- /dev/ttyUSB2 - For AT command communication
- /dev/ttyUSB3 - For PPP connection or AT command communication
If there is more than one USB drive with Option driver, the device name could be different or not in order, you must know how to deal with it by using device mapping.
If you don't see any device node:
1) Your system does not install USB Serial Option Driver, thus pls install or include it when you make the image.
OpenWrt, you need below kernel packages:
+comgt +usb-modeswitch +kmod-mii +kmod-usb-net +kmod-usb-serial +kmod-usb-serial-option +kmod-usb-serial-wwan
2) Your system has USB Serial Option Driver, however it can't recognize your module. Then, you can manually bind VID, PID for Option driver or rebuild Option Driver with mentioned VID, PID.
Load option driver manually with respective $VID, $PID
# Change to root user sudo -i # Load option driver modprobe option # Add new ID to option driver echo "$VID $PID" > /sys/bus/usb-serial/drivers/option1/new_id
For example, with
AG35 VID=`0x2C7C`, PID=`0x0435`
echo "2c7c 0435" > /sys/bus/usb-serial/drivers/option1/new_id
Then, option driver will recognize AG35 interfaces and map accourdingly:
[ 585.258101] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbserial_generic [ 585.258107] usbserial: USB Serial support registered for generic [ 585.264310] usbcore: registered new interface driver option [ 585.264317] usbserial: USB Serial support registered for GSM modem (1-port) [ 1013.185119] option 1-4:1.0: GSM modem (1-port) converter detected [ 1013.185301] usb 1-4: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB0 [ 1013.185334] option 1-4:1.1: GSM modem (1-port) converter detected [ 1013.185397] usb 1-4: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB1 [ 1013.185421] option 1-4:1.2: GSM modem (1-port) converter detected [ 1013.185457] usb 1-4: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB2 [ 1013.185478] option 1-4:1.3: GSM modem (1-port) converter detected [ 1013.185514] usb 1-4: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB3 [ 1013.185544] option 1-4:1.4: GSM modem (1-port) converter detected [ 1013.185588] usb 1-4: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB4 [ 1013.185625] option 1-4:1.7: GSM modem (1-port) converter detected [ 1013.185658] usb 1-4: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB5
However, only interface
0-3 are serial interfac, you need to unbind all other interfaces which are
1-4:1.7 for AG35.
echo "1-4:1.4" > /sys/bus/usb/drivers/option/unbind echo "1-4:1.7" > /sys/bus/usb/drivers/option/unbind
Then, you could see all supported interface listed in option driver:
ls -la /sys/bus/usb/drivers/option/ total 0 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Apr 8 14:54 . drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 0 Apr 8 11:20 .. lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Apr 8 17:08 1-4:1.0 -> ../../../../devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1d.7/usb1/1-4/1-4:1.0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Apr 8 17:08 1-4:1.1 -> ../../../../devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1d.7/usb1/1-4/1-4:1.1 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Apr 8 17:08 1-4:1.2 -> ../../../../devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1d.7/usb1/1-4/1-4:1.2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Apr 8 17:08 1-4:1.3 -> ../../../../devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1d.7/usb1/1-4/1-4:1.3 --w------- 1 root root 4096 Apr 8 17:08 bind lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Apr 8 17:08 module -> ../../../../module/usbserial --w------- 1 root root 4096 Apr 8 17:08 uevent --w------- 1 root root 4096 Apr 8 17:01 unbind
To do this permanently, you need to add into your startup script or udev rules.
To test AT command with AT port using either
sudo picocom -b 115200 /dev/ttyUSB2
QMI WAN Driver
In order to use QMI WAN with Quectel modules,
qmi_wwan driver must be compiled and installed. In OpenWrt, install kernel module
If module is powered on, but does not see
qmi_wwan log from
dmesg, you need to load driver manually and add $VID, $PID similar to above Serial Option Driver.
# Change to root user sudo -i # Load qmi_wwan driver modprobe qmi_wwan # Add vid, pid to qmi_wwan driver echo "2c7c 0435" > /sys/bus/usb/drivers/qmi_wwan/new_id
then you will see interface 4 is listed inside
qmi_wwan driver and there is a node named
ls -la /sys/bus/usb/drivers/qmi_wwan/ total 0 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 0 Apr 8 17:01 . drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 0 Apr 8 11:20 .. lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Apr 8 17:04 1-4:1.4 -> ../../../../devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1d.7/usb1/1-4/1-4:1.4 --w------- 1 root root 4096 Apr 8 17:04 bind lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 0 Apr 8 17:04 module -> ../../../../module/qmi_wwan -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Apr 8 17:04 new_id -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 4096 Apr 8 17:04 remove_id --w------- 1 root root 4096 Apr 8 17:01 uevent --w------- 1 root root 4096 Apr 8 17:04 unbind
Raw IP Mode
EC21/EC25/EG91/EG95/BG96/AG35/EG06/EP06/EM06/EG12/EP12/EM12/EG16/EG18 only support raw IP mode (IP packets not encapsulated in Ethernet frames). So Ethernet header must be stripped when packets are sent to the module, and be added when packets are received from the module.
As Linux kernel higher than 4.9.0 already supported raw IP mode from this patch, you can enable raw IP mode by:
ifconfig wwan0 down echo 1 > /sys/class/net/wwan0/qmi/raw_ip
For older kernel version, you need to apply a patch to
qmi_wwan driver as the last session.
For OpenWrt, at time of writing, the latest
uqmi package arleady taken care of raw IP mode switching from this patch.
Test QMI WAN Driver
Patch kernel drivers
This depends on the kernel version and Linux distro, generally we create a kernel driver patch followed Quectel guidance.
For OpenWrt, Linux kernel is built as Makefile and patch, thus pls following this official guide.
About Quectel Wireless Solutions
Quectel Wireless Solutions is the leading global supplier of 5G, LTE, LTE-A, LPWA, Automotive, Android Smart, UMTS/HSPA(+), GSM/GPRS and GNSS modules. As a professional IoT technology developer and cellular module supplier, Quectel is able to provide one-stop service for IoT cellular modules. Quectel's products have been widely applied in IoT/M2M fields including telematics and transport, smart payment, smart energy, smart city, security, wireless gateway, industry, healthcare, agriculture and environment monitoring.